Blepharospasm is the involuntary, persistent and forced closing of the eyelids.
Excessive blinking or eye irritation may be the initial symptoms of blepharospasm, which usually begins gradually and under certain conditions, such as bright light, emotional tension or fatigue.
With the progression of the disease, eyelids involuntary closing (spasm) can become more frequent and intense, making the patient “functionally blind”.
The eyelids, during a single episode, may remain forcibly closed for several hours.
Blepharospasm is thought to be caused by abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia, nerve structures located at the base of the brain, although it is not yet clear what dysfunction takes place in these structures (benign essential blepharospasm). It can lead to mouth and / or jaw dystonic forms (oromandibular dystonia, Meige syndrome).
Patients turn to an oculoplastic surgeon in the following cases:
The pharmacological treatment of focal dystonias uses medicinal products with general and local action. The local medical treatment consists of an injection of botulinum toxin, which due to its efficacy and relative safety of use, is the treatment of first choice in focal dystonias.
The most effective surgical treatment is the removal of the muscles responsible for eyelid closure (orbicularis muscle myectomy).
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